David Hume was the name of the Scottish philosopher that, on 18th century, posed the problem of induction: given that the sun raised yesterday, how to make sure it will raise tomorrow? Induction is the basis of empirical science.
Barthes, a great theorist of photography interpretation, used studium to talk about the context of a photograph. And punctum to name its most remarkable element. The photograph of Napoleon’s brother started its theorization: this eyes have seen the Emperor!