The last nail in the coffin of classical traditions, was hit by Spiritism, nowadays also known as Kardecism. To this religion, there’s no devil, only human beings doing petty malignant roles, that will they will become tired of someday.
Barthes, a great theorist of photography interpretation, used studium to talk about the context of a photograph. And punctum to name its most remarkable element. The photograph of Napoleon’s brother started its theorization: this eyes have seen the Emperor!